The Adafruit AS7341 10-Channel Light / Color Sensor Breakout is a multi-channel spectrometer, which is a special type of light sensor that is able to detect not only the amount of light present but also the amounts of light within different wavelengths. This means that you can use it to detect much better than the human eye is capable of, what color or colors of light is present.
The AS7341 packs within its 3x2mm footprint 16 different sensors that can detect 8 separate, overlapping bands of colored light. As if that weren't enough, it also includes sensors for white light as well as Near Infra-red light, and even sensors made specifically for detecting light flicker at specific frequencies from things like indoor lighting.
The super-human color measuring capabilities of the AS7341 can be used to quantify the specific makeup of whatever interesting colors you can point it at, and can do so with more accuracy and specificity than a well-trained artist. Now you don't need to go to art school to tell Smalt from Ultramarine, instead, you can have the AS7341 can give you a clue how blue your blue is. This is possible thanks to the impressive collection of sensors in the AS7341 being routed through a 16-bit 6-channel ADC that takes the raw measurements and converts them to digital values that can be read out over I2C.